Principal Types of Rhum
More than all other spirits, rums have considerable variations in their composition and bouquet. This is because, relatively similar in the case of fruit and grain spirits, the manufacturing methods in the rhummerie are very heterogeneous: the raw materials used to prepare the musts are variable; the duration of fermentations ranges from 36 hours to two weeks; the distillation is done in high degree or low degree, in intermittent or continuous apparatus, etc.
Depending on the raw materials used, rums can be classified into rums of vesou, syrup or molasses, and according to the intensity of their aroma, into light, medium-bodied or high-flavored rums. We prefer, however, to group them according to their origin, the products of a certain category being likely to present significant differences from the chemical point of view, and especially organoleptic, according to the country from which they come.
Before reviewing the main types of rum, we need to draw attention to the difficulties we encounter in comparing the analyzes found in technical publications. The analytical methods employed by the various chemists frequently lead, particularly with regard to the higher alcohols, to inconsistent results. At the same time, authors often do not give any details about the treatment of distilled spirits after distillation (aging in barrels, adding sauces, etc.) and are likely to cause significant variations in the rate and balance of impurities. To facilitate comparisons, we will express, in the pages that follow, the impurities in gr. per hectolitre of alcohol at 100°, except as regards the dry extract, which is evaluated in gr. per liter of eau-de-vie for commercial purposes.
The rums of Martinique can be classified into rums of vesou, rums of cooked vesou and syrup, rums of ordinary molasses and grand arôme rums. Those of the group, still called industrial rums, are by far the most important.
They are obtained generally, by giving up the spontaneous fermentation of cane juice mixed or not with vinasse and diluted with water to a density of 1.035 – 1.040. Am sulphate and sulfuric acid are usually added. The duration of the fermentation, formerly of 3-4 days, was reduced to 36-48 hours, thanks to the use of Am sulphate and sulfuric acid. Distillation is made with few exceptions, in continuous apparatus, so as to have a relatively low alcoholic strength (60-65° G.L.). The chemical composition of rum is mainly influenced by the proportion of vinasse used in the composition of the must and the duration of the fermentation. The terroir and the mode of distillation (more or less extensive exhaustion of the wine) also have a great influence on the organoleptic qualities of the product.
[Typically Kervegant uses an old version of the world terroir that has a negative connotation and often implies ordinary production faults due to poor sanitation. Here, it may imply the degree of filtration the cane juice underwent. Undefecated cane will have the aroma of vesouté as we will be explained. Notice that the term vesouté is derived from vesou]
The rum of raw vesou, called grappe blanche when it has not yet been colored by a stay in cask, is the most appreciated of the country’s consumers, which take it in the form of aperitif, mixed with a little syrup and flavored with a slice of citron. On the other hand, grappe blanche is not liked in France, where it is reproached for its “vesouté” taste. It is also not pleasant, consumed in grog or in the form of small glass after a meal and inferior in this respect to molasses rum.
Young rum of vesou is characterized, from the organoleptic point of view, by a particular aroma, called vesouté, recalling cane juice, but presenting, according to the marks, numerous nuances (sometimes the bouquet of marc eau-de-vie or juniper). Of very variable quality, according to the distilleries, and even for a distillery, according to the season, it generally has little body, a fine smell and flavor, of relatively low intensity and persistence.
The taste of “vesuoté” is accentuated by leaving the cut cane for a while before passing them to the mill: this practice was formerly used in the colony. Terroir is also important: canes produced in the hard, dry lands of southern Martinique produce heavier rum than those from the light and well watered lands of the North.
[Modern use of the terroir concept! spectacular!]
A particular type of rum de vesou is the cœur de chauffe, more full-bodied and more aromatic than ordinary grappe blanche and whose fragrance recalls the eau-de-vie of juniper. Constituted by the first fractions of the distillate, it is rich in esters and higher alcohols. Produced in small quantities in a few small agricultural distilleries with discontinuous stills, it is consumed entirely on site.
By aging in barrels, the bouquet of rum de vesou is considerably modified: it then recalls both the old grape eau-de-vie and the American whiskeys, as a result of the widespread habit of using charred barrels for storage. If the stay in casks is prolonged, the product takes a pronounced “woody” taste, unfortunately common in the old rums of the colony. Maturation of rums of raw vesou is quite long (2-3 years in barrels of at least 250 liters) and very variable, depending on the quality of the original product. Some types of grappe blanche provide, by aging, only lower-quality spirits, with an acid taste: they appear, according to the local expression. Aging is done naturally, without addition of caramel or aromatic ingredients.
[SOS There are some logical hiccups in here. I suspect Kervegant is saying they try to age poor original spirits and get bad results but they survive for local consumption.]
We give below some analyzes of rum de vesou of Martinique:
Observations. — Lab. Agr. = Laboratory of chemistry and agricultural technology of the Department of Agriculture of Martinique.
The analyzes were made by the official French methods, except for the extract of numbers 30 to 34, which was calculated according to the difference between the real degree and apparent degree. The old rums analyzed were stored in charred oak barrels and received no added caramel or other ingredients. Samples 30, 31, 32 come from the same distillery.
The figures above show that young rums of vesou have a fairly constant composition: non-alcohol coefficient generally between 200 and 400, predominance of higher alcohols, ratio of Esters: Higher Alcs. and Acids: Higher Alcs. always lower than unity. The most potent products come from distilleries which bring large proportions of vinasse into the composition of musts or which have fermentations of longer duration.
Rums destined for export without having been aged beforehand have caramel added, but receive no sauces and are not subjected to any other special treatment. The addition of caramel causes a lowering of the alcoholic degree of 0°4-0°8 and a production of dry extract of 2 to 4 gr per liter on average. On arrival in the Metropolis ports, the rums have been in barrels for several months and suffer the beginning of aging. Their levels of acids and esters tend to increase accordingly. Many analyzes of these rums, as they are at the time of their landing in France were given by Bonis, Sanarens, Rocques, etc.
Vesou rhum, cooked and from syrup.
The rums of cooked vesou are obtained from musts in the composition of which cane juice can be introduced after defecation with lime or simply by heating to boiling: those of syrup, from juice defecated with lime and concentrated. In the manufacture of the current types of syrup rum, the musts are composed at a higher density (1.045-1.065) than for the rum of raw vesou, with addition of vinasse (20 to 65%). The fermentation, which is done spontaneously, lasts 3 to 5 days.
These rums have a bouquet approaching that of molasses rums, but more delicate and finer; the vesouté aroma has disappeared completely (rum of syrup) or has strongly reduced (cooked vesou). More full-bodied and much more regular, from an organoleptic point of view compared to rums of raw vesou, they also mature more quickly (after 1-2 years in the tropics).
Currently manufactured on a small scale and destined solely for export, they seem to have a growing importance in the future.
We give below some analyzes of these products:
From the chemical point of view, rums of cooked vesou and syrup are very similar to those of the most full-bodied vesou cru.
Rhums de mélasse.
Molasse rums, very rarely consumed in the colony, are by far the most important from the point of view of export. Their aroma, less fine, but more intense and more persistent than that of vesou rums, are better appreciated by consumers in the metropolis.
Since the end of the last century, they have undergone great changes in their chemical composition, as a result of modifications made to fermentation. The musts are generally composed with molasses, vinasse and water, so as to have a density ranging from 1.040 to 1.060, with addition of sulfuric acid and sulphate of Am. The proportions of the ingredients used vary within wide limits and strongly influence the composition and aroma of the product. Formerly, from 4 to 5 days or often more, the fermentation is now finished after 48 to 72 hours, thanks to the widespread use of sulfuric acid, Am sulphate, and the practice of using pure yeasts. Frequently, selected yeasts imported from France are used or, more rarely, locally purified yeasts. The rum is distilled at 55-65°, by means of a continuous apparatus. It is still colored with caramel. The aroma, rather coarse in the fresh product, is refined much by aging.
Observations. — Analyzes carried out according to French official methods. The extract has been calculated, except for the analyzes made by Rocques and Zizine, according to the difference between the apparent degree and real degree (Blarez’s formula). Most of the rums above were caramel colored and spent a few months in charred oak barrels.
The non-alcohol coefficient, which usually varied at the beginning of the century between 350 and 600, then dropped to around 200-300, at the time when fast fermentations were in vogue (1920-1930). The decrease was mainly in acids and esters: Esters : Higher Alc., formerly greater than 1, generally became inferior to unity, the equilibrium tending to be close to that of vesou rums. In recent years, as the rum market in France has become more difficult and the insufficiently full-bodied products are depreciated in price, distillers have turned their attention to the production of a more aromatic rum.
Grand arôme rhums.
This title is meant for very aromatic molasses rums, developed for stretching power and sought for blends. They are obtained by long-term fermentation (8-12 days), from high density must (1.110-1.115) rich in organic acids (15-20 gr per liter), which are prepared with a strong proportion of acidic vinasse. Fission yeasts and bacteria play an important role in the fermentation of the musts. These rums are currently manufactured by only three plants in the colony (Galion, Bassignac, Meyer).
Grand arôme rums are characterized, organoleptically, by a fruity bouquet, variable according to the marks, which easily differentiates them from ordinary molasses rums. From the chemical point of view, they have high levels of acids and esters. The proportion of higher alcohols, on the other hand, is low or very low, especially in Galion type rum (1).
(1) It is more probable, however, that the higher alcohols of these rums are constituted chiefly, as in the Jamaican rhums, by normal alcohols, which largely escape the measurement by the official French method.
(2) No caramel.
There exists between the “grand arôme” proper and the ordinary rums of molasses all the intermediates. Meyer rum, which we have ranked here among the first, would be closer, by its equilibrium, to the rums of molasses with a high coefficient of impurities, which were manufactured at the beginning of the century.
[Don’t forget, at the beginning of the century many of the distilleries making these rhums were destroyed by the Mt. Pelee volcano. I was not aware that three grand arôme rums could be named at publishing time in 1946. Currently there is only Galion which does appear to be the best then.]
Guadeloupe produces only rums of raw vesou and ordinary molasses rums. The manufacturing processes are essentially the same as in Martinique. However, fermentations, usually in the presence of antiseptics (fluorides) and using selected yeasts, are purer and shorter (24 to 48 hours). Also the products obtained are lighter and less aromatic than those from Martinique.
Observations. — Analyzes carried out according to French official methods. We have included in the determination of the non-alcohol coefficient the total acids, although many authors take into account only the volatile acids (Bonis, Rocques, Auffret).
All these rums are characterized by their weakness in acids and esters. The ratio Esters : Higher Alc. is always less than unity. The increase in the rate of impurities during aging is also low.
Réunion, Madagascar, Comores islands.
Reunion and Comoros produce mostly rums of melasse and Madagascar rums of green vesou. The musts used for the manufacture of the first are prepared most often simply by diluting molasses in water, so as to have a density of 1.060-1.070, without addition of sulfuric acid or ammonium sulfate. Sometimes, vinasse is used in small quantities (30-40%). Fermentation is usually spontaneous; it lasts from 36 to 72 hours in Madagascar and from 4 to 5 days in the Comoros Islands. Vesou musts usually do not receive any addition of chemicals; their density is 1.055-1.065 and the fermentation, spontaneous, lasts from 2 to 5 days. Distillation is made in continuous apparatus, at a higher rate than in the West Indies: 65° to 80°. At the time of shipment in France, the rums are reduced to 60-65°, but they are not colored with caramel.
The rum currently obtained in Reunion are of the light type, ratio Esters Higher Alc. less than unity. Those of Madagascar and especially Comoros are more full-bodied.
Rums delivered for consumption in France usually result from mixing rums from the various colonies. The alcoholic strength is reduced to 40-45°, and sometimes sauces containing tea infusion, Tolu balm, cachou, etc. are added to the product. Here are some analyzes of commercial rums:
At the tasting, these rums are classifying, in the following order of quality: 2-3-6-5-4-1-7-8 (Guillaume).
The rums of English Guiana, better known as Demerara rums, are light molasses rums. The must, prepared by diluting molasses with water, without vinasse, so as to have a density of 1.065, receives a little sulphate of Am and sulfuric acid. Fermentation is usually complete after 48 hours. Distillation is done at high degree (84-85°, sometimes even 90° GL), in batch apparatus or Coffey columns. Export rum is strongly colored with caramel and reduced to 81-82°. For local consumption and some foreign markets (United States), the rum is supplemented with sauces made from fruits (prunes, raisins) and spices, diluted with water, so as to lower the alcoholic strength to 45-50° and aged for a period ranging from a few months to 3 years.
The products thus prepared have a characteristic odor and fruit flavor, but a slightly accentuated bouquet of rum. The caramel used for coloring, usually at high doses, also influences the aroma (Harrison).
Observations. — Samples 1-3 were analyzed by official French methods: the others by American methods, with evaluation of the higher alcohols in amyl alcohol. Rums 4, 5 and 6 had no added caramel.
[Kervegant does not make Guyana sound too interesting and my limited understanding is that their big pot stills which are legendary today were built in the 1950’s.]
Cousins classified, in 1907, rums produced in Jamaica in 3 types: rums of local consumption (local trade quality), the rums intended for the metropolis (home trade quality) and rums exported on continental Europe (export trade quality). The first two types were often referred to as common clean rum and the third as high flavored or German rum, with Germany as the main outlet for the product. Even today, rums from Jamaica are divided into good ordinary rums, medium rums and high ester rums.
Local consumption rums are light or medium-bodied. They have a delicate and pleasant aroma, predominantly dominated by ethyl acetate, and a very frank bouquet of rum. They contain, according to Cousins, 90 to 300 esters (180 to 220 on average). They are obtained from musts consisting of a mixture of molasses, cane juice, scums and vinasse. The density of the composition is low and the fermentation of short duration.
Compared to the previous category, rums of the second category, which constitute the largest part of exports, have a more developed body, a more intense aroma, fuller and more fruity, from the presence of high molecular weight esters. Diluted with water, they have a “spicy” aftertaste. The level of esters is from 300 to 500 in the best grades, generally greater than 200, but can exceptionally fall to 100. The musts used to produce these rums have a relatively high density and acidity and are slow-fermented (generally 5-6 days), in which bacteria living at the expense of dead yeasts play an important role (Cousins). Acidified scums are added in their composition by a preliminary fermentation, often in the presence of bagasse. A particular quality is pineapple rum, characterized by a bouquet of pronounced pineapple, due to an ester, which passes in the first fraction of fractional distillation according to the Micko method.
[There is a lot going on here, and I don’t think Kervegant has ever seen one of these productions so much as is just paraphrasing H. H. Cousins. At the end, the Micko method is basically just birectifier distillation. The acidified scums are part of the vinegar making process. Bagasse contains the vinegar bacteria and is a substrate for it to grow on.]
The grand arôme rums have an abnormally high ester content: 500 to 1200 in general, but sometimes up to 1,600 gr. and more per hl, of pure alcohol. These spirits are not suitable for direct consumption. They are used on the European continent, and more particularly in Germany, to make blends with lighter rums or neutral alcohol. The must used for the preparation of these rums, are high density and very acid (up to 30 grams of acidity per liter). In addition to molasses, scums and vinasse, cane juices that have undergone prior fermentation in the presence of bagasse and bottoms (acid and aroma) are included in their composition. In the fermentation, which lasts about two weeks, fission yeasts and bacteria intervene.
The grand arôme rums present from one distillery to the other important variations of composition: “There are no two areas”, writes Cousins, “who produce an identical bouquet. The differences are due to the variation of the microbial flora; they depend mainly on the variable composition of the raw materials used and conditions of the environment. The manufacturing is particularly precarious and erratic, with regard to both the yield and the quality of the product. It is not uncommon for successive cuvées of rum, produced at the same distillery in seemingly identical conditions, to have variations of value of 8 s, at 4 s. per gallon. When one realizes the complicated process of manufacturing and the complete absence of rational control, one can only be surprised to find that the results are not even more irregular.”
In Jamaica, rums are always distilled in batch apparatus of the Jamaica pot still type, and at a high level (80° G. L. in general), which must not exceed 83° G. L. They are then colored with caramel, aged in oak barrels, charred or not, of 500 liters of capacity, during a period ranging from 5 to 10 years. The addition of sauces and the practice of artificial aging are prohibited by law. It is wrong that Pairault attributes the intense aroma of german rum to the addition of sauces, in which some heated leather or a short stay in the tannery pits, a small amount of alcoholic infusion of American chewing tobacco and sometimes iris.
[The translation gets a little wonky at the end. All of these suggestions for artifice are also associated with rose ketones. Pairault, no doubt, had envy.]
Observations. – Higher alcohols were assayed in samples 1-7 and 21-24 by the Allen-Marquardt method: in samples 12-20 by the modified US-Allen-Marquardt method); in samples 8-11 and 21-31 by the official French method and in samples 25-26 and 32 by the Röse method, with evaluation in amyl alcohol pout 1-7. 21-24, 12-20. 25-26 and isobutyl alcohol for 8-11, 27-31 and 32. To report the considerable differences between the figures provided by the different analytical methods.
Numbers 12 to 20 are medium-bodied Jamaican rums, as delivered for consumption in the United States and England. They are significantly less rich in esters and richer in higher alcohols than similar products prepared at the beginning of the century. It seems that the distillers of Jamaica have a tendency, like those of the French West Indies, to have purer fermentations, giving a type of rum that is less full-bodied, similar to that for local consumption (sample N° 11).
The grand arôme rums, however, have lost nothing of their very strong character. Wüstenfeld and Luckow have, in fact, found some years ago, in some samples, ester levels reaching 2,000 and even 3,000 gr. per hl. of pure alcohol (maximum observed: 3,071 gr.). For 79 Jamaican rums examined, the esters had the following values:
Virtually all rums produced & Cuba come from molasses. These are subjected to a short fermentation (3 days on average), using pure yeast cultures. Distillation is made at a high level (80 ° G.L. or more), in a continuous apparatus. Often they do not collect as beverage alcohol that the products of heart (madilla), heads (cabeza) and tails (cola) being reserved for industrial uses. At the outlet of the column, the brandy is very often filtered on charcoal or sand. It is then brought to the degree of consumption (about 45°) and sauces are added based on wine, fruit, etc. which constitute the base of the bouquet of Cuban rums. They undergo only short-term aging, in new uncharred oak barrels or in used barrels.
[SOS somehow their is a logic problem with his not using the hearts fraction. I think what is implied is that multiple things are drawn off the column and they are not afraid to turn them over to industrial use rather than trying to purify them for beverage use. Cuba was an early pioneer of a fuel ethanol and I think that dictated their choice of adopting continuous stills. Their rums in Kervegant’s day sound really lame.]
Cuban rums fall into two categories: white rums (Ron carta blanca) and colored rums (Ron carta de oro). The golden yellow hue of these, which are a little richer in impurities than the white rums, is obtained in general only by addition of caramel.
Both are light, with a bouquet and a not pronounced flavor of rum; they have a characteristic fruity taste or a flavor reminiscent of molasses. The predominant fragrance is that of ethyl acetate (Valaer). Subjected to fractional distillation, they present in the last fractions a peach scent (Micko). From the chemical point of view, these rums, which are more reminiscent of brandy than real rum, are characterized by their low level of impurities, ratio Esters : Volatile Acids greater than unity ratio and a relatively high solids content, brought by the added sauces. They are especially suited for the preparation of cocktails.
Rums produced in the past were much richer in impurities. Micko, for example, reported in 1910 rates of 105-155 volatile acids and 92-203 esters. We give below some analyzes of Cuban rums, as they are delivered for consumption in the United States. Samples 5 – 7 – 8 – 9 – 12 – 13 are Bacardi brand rums, one of the best known in Cuba:
Puerto Rico produces mainly moderately heavy molasses rums. Am sulphate and sometimes sulfuric acid are usually added to the must. The fermentation, which is usually done spontaneously, lasts 4 to 7 days. The rum is distilled at 70 to 83°, but sometimes up to 90°. Small quantities of vesou rum are also produced. The artificial aging processes are quite often applied, in order to remove the taste of young rum.
Observations. — Assays performed by US official methods. It is the same for all the other analyzes cited by Valaer and Arroyo.
The island of St. Croix currently manufactures only vesou rum. Cane juice coming out of the mills is usually inoculated with a pure yeast culture, but in some cases the must is left to spontaneous fermentation, which can last up to 8 days (Valaer). Distillation is made in continuous appliances or intermittent stills, with an alcoholic strength ranging from 65 to 75° G.L. The rum, to which no sauce is added, is aged in charred oak barrels.
Observations. The low acidity of samples 4 and 5 is probably due to the neutralizing action exerted on the rum by the alkalis extracted from new, heavily charred barrels.
The only raw material used in the United States for making rum is final molasses (blackstrap), imported mainly from Cuba. The States of Massachusetts, Kentucky and Pennsylvania produce full-bodied rums, of pronounced bouquet, relatively coarse and unpleasant to taste when young, but which improve a lot with aging. The musts are prepared by diluting the molasses in water, without the addition of vinasse, so as to have a fairly high density (1 part of molasses for 5 to 6 parts of water). Fermentation is usually done with pure yeasts, and distillation must be done at an alcoholic strength of not more than 80° G.L (often 60-65°). The rum, when it leaves the still, is diluted to the degree of consumption and aged, for a period ranging from a few months to 4 years, in charred oak barrels. Sometimes they are submitted before storage to artificial aging, by filtration on charred oak chips. They are not colored with caramel.
[Dilution before aging is an important characteristic of the American aging system.]
In Louisiana, on the other hand, and sometimes in Pennsylvania, a light Cuba type rum is produced. The product, distilled at a very high degree (just below 95 G.L.), is deprived by rectification of the major part of its normal impurities and has to only a very low degree the specific flavor and bouquet of rum. It receives only artificial aging, by means of charred oak chips, for example. Louisiana also makes a small amount of full-bodied rums (sample 7).
We give below the composition, according to Valaer (1937), of various rums produced in the United States. Samples were taken from barrels placed in Government Warehouses. Those marked a are new rums and those marked b are the same rums having aged for a certain time in wood. Samples 4 and 4b were subjected to prior filtration on charred oak chips; 8 and 9 are rums from New England (Massachusetts) kept for about 19 years in used oak barrels:
[Harris Eastman Sawyer R.I.P]
French Guiana currently produces only raw vesou rums. The musts, which generally do not receive any addition of chemicals or vinasse, have a rather high density (1.040 to 1.060). Fermentation is spontaneous and lasts from 2 to 8 days. The rum, distilled at a low temperature (55-70°), by means of continuous apparatus, is moderately full-bodied. It is consumed in the young state or after aging in barrels, without addition of sauces.
Haiti manufactures mostly syrup rum, which is sold in the non-colored state (clairin), or after aging in oak barrels (rhum). Fermentation is spontaneous and distillation carried out by repasse, in intermittent or continuous apparatus, under 60° G. L. approximately.
[The the little I know, Haiti kept a tradition of using “syrup” or concentrated cane juice rather than just fresh juice. This seems unique becaus it likely requires more energy and organization rather than the very small Haiti is known for.]
Rums from Central America (Mexico) or South America (Venezuela, Uruguay) are mostly distilled at a high degree and only have a very low rum bouquet. The same is true of those produced in the Philippines and in English India. In Indochina, the musts, prepared with sugar house molasses or native molasses and with added sulphate of Am. are seeded with pure yeasts, selected on site. The distillation is done at 60-65°, using continuous apparatus. The rum obtained is not very full-bodied; there is no addition of caramel.
Tahiti produces a moderately full-bodied molasses rum, by spontaneous fermentation, without any addition of vinasse or chemicals to the must.
We give below some analyzes of rum obtained in the various countries above:
Netherlands Indies [Dutch]
Arak from Batavia is a medium-bodied eau-de-vie, whose bouquet is a bit like that of molasses rums. However, the smell of Russian leather is generally much more pronounced. Some samples have a slightly butyric taste and smell. Wüstenfeld and Luckow observed that the rate of arak esters varied within fairly narrow limits: between 230 and 470, for 11 samples examined.
[Russian leather is another indicator of rose ketones and rum oil.]
The German authors designate under the name Deutscher rum an eau-de-vie made from juices and beet molasses, mainly from the Hünlich distillery in Wilthen (Saxony), and which has a certain resemblance to real rum. The molasses must is fermented in premises maintained at the normal temperature of the tropics using selected yeasts. Vinasse is added, in certain proportions, prepared by submitting to a bacterial fermentation, at high temperature, the residue of distillation with cane sugar added, nitrogenous substances and fruit. The unpleasant aromatic substances that occur during the fermentation of molasses are removed by a special process.
German rum, from the point of view of chemical composition, would be close to medium-bodied Jamaican rum or better Martinique rum (the higher alcohol content remains a little weak). In fractional distillation, it has in the sixth fraction the smell of Russian leather, which is normally found in rums and araks (Haupt), but not the aromatic substance typical of Jamaican rum (Brauer). Treated with sulfuric acid, it does not have the smell of real rums (Schaffer) either. From an organoleptic point of view, the product, which lacks the original taste of beet alcohol, is comparable to the average quality rum and superior to the cheap commercial grades of this spirit (Haupt).
[I knew there were efforts to work on this, and I have translated many papers by those authors, but I did not know the specific name of the factory!]
We give below some analyzes of this product:
Artificial rums have the most variable composition. They generally consist of neutral alcohol colored with caramel and with added artificial essences (mainly based on formate, acetate and butyrate of ethyl alcohol), or various sauces based on vanilla, cinnamon, etc. … According to Micko, cinnamon oil and vanillin are the most common aromatic products found in artificial rums in Germany. Quite often, a little real rum (particularly grand arôme rum) is added to the rum preparation, which gives an attenuated bouquet of natural rum. Finally, we sometimes find the particular aroma of the acetic ether, which can turn into an odor of acetic acid, if you leave a half-full flask exposed for some time to light (Sanarens).
We give below some analyzes of artificial rums: