Early Accounts of Arrack Et Al.

CANE SUGAR (1911 PDF):

A TEXT-BOOK ON THE AGRICULTURE OF THE SUGAR CANE THE MANUFACTURE OF CANE SUGAR, AND THE ANALYSIS OF SUGAR HOUSE PRODUCTS; TOGETHER WITH A CHAPTER ON THE FERMENTATION OF MOLASSES.
NOEL DEERR, SUGAR TECHNOLOGIST AT THE EXPERIMENT STATION OF THE HAWAIIAN SUGAR PLANTERS’ ASSOCIATION ; AUTHOR OP ” SUGAR AND THE SUGAR CANE.”

Here are two choice excerpts on rum making. Production processes for a few other regions are described but they aren’t so unique. The author continues the chapter will more excellent information on rum production and still operation of historical significance.

p. 562

Java.24—In Java and the East generally, a very different procedure is followed. In the first place a material known as Java or Chinese yeast is prepared from native formula. In Java, pieces of sugar cane are crushed along with certain aromatic herbs, amongst which galanga and garlic are always present, and the resulting extract made into a paste with rice meal; the paste is formed into strips, allowed to dry in the sun, and then macerated with water and lemon juice; the pulpy mass obtained after standing for three days is separated from the water and made into small balls, rolled in rice straw and allowed to dry; these balls are known as Raggi or Java yeast. In the next step rice is boiled and spread out in a layer on plantain leaves and sprinkled over with Raggi, then packed in earthenware pots and left to stand for two days, at the end of which period the rice is converted into a semi-liquid mass; this material is termed Tapej and is used to excite fermentation in molasses wash. The wash is set up at a density of 25° Balling and afterwards the process is as usual. In this proceeding the starch in the rice is converted by means of certain micro-organisms, Chlamydomucor oryzae, into sugar and then forms a suitable habitat for the reproduction of yeasts, which are probably present in the Raggi, but may find their way into the Tapej from other sources. About 100 lbs. of rice are used to pitch 1000 gallons of wash.

24. From Lafar’s Technical Mycology, Vol. V.

p. 563

Jamaica.—Allan25 gives the following outline of the process followed in making flavoured spirit:—”The wash is set up from skimmings, dunder, molasses, acid and flavour. Acid is made by fermenting rum cane juice which has been warmed in the coppers. To this juice is added dunder and perhaps a little skimmings. “When fermentation is about over, the fermenting liquor is pumped on to cane trash in cisterns and here it gets sour. Into these cisterns sludge settling from the fermented wash is from time to time put. This acid when fit for use smells like sour beer. Flavour is prepared by running fermented rum cane juice into cisterns outside the fermenting house along with cane trash and dunder that has been stored from a previous crop. Generally a proportion of liquid from what is called the ‘muck hole’ is also added to this cistern. The components of the ‘muck hole’ are the thicker portion of the dunder from the still, the lees from the retorts, and cane trash and other adventitious matter which from time to time finds its way into this receptacle. From this cistern the incipient flavouring material passes on to a second and third cistern filled with cane trash, and to which sludge from fermenting wash has been added. From the third cistern it is added to the wash. Skimmings are run from the boiling house into cisterns half filled with cane trash. This is allowed to remain four, five, or six days. When the skimmings are considered ripe, wash is set up with them. Fermentation lasts seven to eight days. The time which elapses between setting up the wash and distillation is from thirteen to fourteen days.”

25. W. I. B., VII., 141. (this might refer to the Wochenschrift fur Brauerei journal but I’m not positive)

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