[If you enjoy this content, use it professionally, or simply want to support the blog, please share the artisan workshop of the bostonapothecary, the Houghton Street Foundry. It will evolve from an architecture focused machine shop to also include a laboratory for distillery analysis and applied yeast work.]
[I’ve made a great PDF of a Arroyo’s 1945 Studies on Rum and I’m pleased to say the text has even surpassed my expectations. I’m going to finishing reading it and playing with it then I’ll eventually release it. I need to de-warp some of the page scannings and reduce the size of the PDF because it currently rings in at 60MBs.]
To my knowledge there are no accessible digitized copies of Rafael Arroyo’s 1945 Studies on Rum. You’d probably have to wait a few years to find a print copy for sale and I suspect a big reason is because the book was printed so cheaply it is physically falling apart.
But what is this all about? Through a grant from the U.S. government Arroyo set out to do detailed studies of rum production and he created new techniques in fermentation that revolutionized how rum was made. Even in Jamaica, which is known for dunder pits and muck holes, the leading producer, Appleton, likely favors the Arroyo method. I’m sure if you’re here, you already know a little about Arroyo.
Not much happened with Arroyo’s work until decades later because of the timing of WWII (this was explained in Rum: Yesterday and Today), but everything was given an update with Puerto Rico’s Rum Pilot Plant and those agricultural bulletins are mostly lost as well. The RPP works are a series of twenty something bulletins and are in both English and Spanish because of how they were funded by the U.S. government. These documents transformed how rum is made around the world and were supposed to be shared and accessible, but somehow they’ve become elusive and even the most serious PhD spirits researchers do not cite them in bibliographies.
I have collected probably all of Arroyo’s citations from the journals they were originally appearing in mostly courtesy the bibliography of the late John E. Murtaugh who was one of the great distillation educators as well as a significant contributing author to the Alcohol Text book. [I should also note that German globe trotting sugar technologist, Hubert Von Olbrich, also lists most of Arroyo’s original citations in his Geschichte der Melasse, 1970. He only misses a few.]
Next I will tackle the Rum Pilot Plant bulletins and I have strong leads to their locations. I actually have the entire annotated bibliography of all articles related to the Rum Pilot Plant, but it is a pretty big under taking to collect and beyond the scope of most people’s interests.
[I’m trying to request these first three from the Experiment Station reports and not from Facts about Sugar which I am afraid is just a review and not the full article. Problem so far is Archive.org’s version of the Experiment Station reports don’t have any mention of Arroyo. Not sure if they are the same reports or a different one. I suspect these are important, not so much to learn production techniques, but to gain historical context because they are his first articles on rum.]
Arroyo R. , Manzano M. Jamaica Type Rum in Puerto Rico. University
of Puerto Rico, Agr. Expt. Station Report for 1937-38, p. 26-27; rev. : Facts
about Sugar 35 (1940) , no. 4, p . 38.
Arroyo R., Marrero F., Haravidez L. Rum Types and the creation
of new rum types from cane juice. Report University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, 1939, p. 43-44, rev. : Facts about Sugar 35 (1940) , no. 11 , p. 37.
Arroyo R. The Aroma of Rum : The influence of pre-treating the raw
material. Revista agricultura industria commercio; Puerto Rico 32 (1940),
no. 2, p. 284-286; rev. : Facts about Sugar 35 (1940), no. 11 , p . 37.
Arroyo, R. 1941. The manufacture of rum Part I. Sugar
Arroyo, R. 1942. The manufacture of rum Part II. Sugar
Arroyo, R. 1942. The manufacture of rum Part III. Sugar
Arroyo R. 1942 The manufacture of rum Part IV. Sugar
Arroyo R. 1942 The manufacture of rum Part V. Sugar
Arroyo, R. 1942. US Patent 2,295,150. Ethanol Fermentation of Black Strap Molasses.
Arroyo R. Dilution Problem in Rum Manufacture, Sugar 38 (1943), no. 7,
p. 25, 26.
[I haven’t requested this because he covers it so well in the 1945 text.]
Arroyo R. Genuine and spurious Rums, Sugar 38 (1943), no. 8, p. 25 , 27.
Arroyo, R. 1945. US Patent 2,386,924. Production of heavy rums.
Arroyo, R. 1945. The production of heavy bodied rum. International Sugar Journal 40(11):34-39.
Arroyo, R. 1945. Studies on rum. Research Bulletin
No. 5 (University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Experiment Station, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico), December. [I have this but have not shared it!]
Arroyo, R. 1947. The economics of rum production. International Sugar Journal 49:292-294, 325-327. [part I, part II]
Arroyo, R. 1948a. The production of straight light rums from blackstrap. International Sugar Journal 50:150-152.
Arroyo, R. 1948b. The flavour of rum – recent chromatographic research. International Sugar Journal 50:210.
Arroyo, R. 1948c. Simultaneous production of light and heavy rum. International Sugar Journal 50:289-291.
Arroyo, R. 1949a. The Arroyo fermentation process for alcohol and light rum from molasses. Sugar Journal 11(8):5-12.
Arroyo, R. 1949b. A new rum distillation process. Sugar 44 (7):34-36.
Arroyo, R. 1949c. Rum distillery yields and efficiencies factors affecting them. International Sugar Journal 51:163-169, 189-191.
Arroyo, R. 1950. Advanced features in rum fermentation. International Sugar Journal 52:42-44.
Arroyo died in 1949 so a few of these would have published posthumously.
Additional articles of interest:
L’Anson P. 1976. Diversification in the distilleries. Wine and Spirit. 106: 38-39, 42-43, 45.
Kampen, W.H. 1975. Technology of the rum industry. Sugar y Azucar. 36-43
Kampen, W.H. 1975. Technology of the rum industry.
Sugar & Azucar 70(8):36-43. [I can’t remember were I took these two different citations from, but who knows if they are the same article?]
Aguiar, J.L., Rodriguez-Benitez, V., and Garcia Morin, M., 1968, Study of the Use and Reuse of Activated Charcoal in Rum Processing, J. Agr. Univ. P.R. 52(1).